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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The paper fits within the scope of the journal (see the Aims and Scope section on this website).
  • The submission has not been previously published (or an explanation has been provided in comments to the Editor).
  • The text adheres to the requirements outlined in the journal's Author Guidelines. Notably, it has been fully anonymized. Author details are submitted in a separate file.
  • In case materials are included which are protected by a copyright, permission to reprint can be provided.
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, or RTF document file format.

Author Guidelines

Preparing the manuscript

Please note: articles which clearly do not comply with these Author uidelines may be rejected on submission.

Submit a clean copy of the manuscript online to the L1-Educational Studies in Language and Literature website ( A manuscript can comprise several files, including materials (transcripts, documents etc.) in languages other than English and in scripts other than latin. If so, however, be sure to add an English translation. Articles submitted must follow APA guidelines (see Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association . 7th edition. Washington, DC: APA 2020; for an overview you might consult

Use 12 pt. font for the final version of the article. Indicate emphasis by using italics; do not use bold. Do not right-justify the manuscript.

Title Page: Include title and subtitle, running head, authors' names, academic affiliation, and addresses, as well as e-mail addresses. Submit the title page in a separate file to keep the manuscript anonymized for review.

Abstract: Include a short (200 words or fewer) abstract of the manuscript. Below the abstract, include about five key words that identify the main topics of the paper.

Article: The article begins on the first page after the abstract page. We recommend that the article is no longer than 10.000 words (reference list excluded). If the article exceeds this length, the editor may ask you to shorten it. Please also be aware that review procedures may take longer for longer articles.

Footnotes and Endnotes: Do not use footnotes or endnotes in your manuscript.

References: Provide bibliographical information on all (and only) citations in the running text in the References section. The References section appears at the end of the article, beginning on a separate page, after the running text. Please make sure that you follow APA 7 guidelines (see above). If you include titles in a language other than English, add, directly next to the title, a translation of the title into English between [square brackets].

As your article will be indexed by DOI, DOI numbers must be inserted in the References section wherever applicable. You may easily achieve this by copying the reference list and pasting it into The list will be returned with DOIs added, and you may paste it back to your paper.

If you quote titles written by yourself, have the reference anonymized. For instance, write “Author (2015)”  in the References section in case you cite a paper you published 2015, and do not add other bibliographic data. Also, refer to the title by “(Author, 2015)” within the running text. The full reference will be inserted when your text gets published.

Tables, Figures, Audio- & Video materials: Tables and figures should follow APA guidelines (see APA handbook). Notably, number each table and each figure, and add captions. Tables must be prepared with MS Excel or with the “tables” facility of MS Word, so that editors can make adjustments if necessary. Except for size, all figures should appear exactly as you wish them to appear in print.

Note that it may be necessary to move tables and figures to another place when the text gets formatted. So, it is essential that you refer to each table/each figure by its number within the running text.

Audio files and videos can be included only in rare exceptional cases. Before submitting such files, please consult the editors.

 Author’s Note: You may provide a brief Author’s note at the end of the body of the article (indicating acknowledgements, funding sponsors, and addresses for correspondence including e-mail).

Permissions: Written permission is required for all tables, figures, or quotations over 500 words, non-written materials from sources for which the author does not hold the copyright, and all quotations of any length from newspapers, radio, TV broadcasts, or magazines. Please submit evidence of permission with the manuscript. Permission must indicate the original author's consent to electronic reproductions of this material. If written permission has not been obtained by the time your manuscript reaches final draft stage, copyrighted materials will be paraphrased or dropped.

A note on style and language

Authors should use the following style checklist as they prepare their manuscripts for final submission. Concerns not addressed in this list can be resolved by referring to the APA handbook.

  1. Write in clear (English) language accessible to the international reading audience of L1-Educational Studies in Language and Literature. Avoid educational jargon.
  2. Use the active voice throughout the document, wherever possible. 

Take care of linguistic correctness. If English isn’t your native language, we recommend that you have your manuscript checked by a native speaker before you submit it. Manuscripts which deviate vastly from basic linguistic standards will not be considered for review.

Authors' obligations

If you use data in your research, obtain informed consent from your subjects and make sure that you conform to national laws as well as to ethical standards (see, e. g., Anonymize data carefully.

Be sure to give credit to all sources you used. Articles based on plagiarism will be rejected in any case. Recently, fragmented and/or duplicate publications have become a major concern (see In case of doubt, please contact the editors before submitting.


Section default policy

Privacy Statement

User data

The journal’s user data and the bibliographic data will be used to handle the editorial process. No personal data will be transferred to any external parties nor sold. During the review process, the journal will not share personal author data with the reviewers or personal reviewer data with the authors (double-blind procedure).

Users can change their data by editing their profile. They can have their account deleted by sending a request to do so to However, the integrity of the scientific communication process implies that deleting author data is not possible after a publication has appeared which refers to these data. By the same token, data entered in the course of a submission process can be deleted only as long as the submission has not been published.

The editorial team may use anonymized and aggregated data to improve or document their work. Data that are suited to assist in developing the OJS publishing platform may be shared with the developer Public Knowledge Project (PKP), but only in an anonymized and aggregated form.

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General remarks

Data will be saved on the server of the University of Frankfurt Library. The host complies with the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (see For details about the host’s data protection policy (Datenschutzerklärung), please see

Please note that only the Datenschutzerklärung is legally binding. This statement serves as an informal overview over its main contents.

In case you have any questions related to this statement, please contact Debra Myhill,