Comparative analysis of the approach to L1 oracy in Polish and Portuguese early education curricula


  • Michał Daszkiewicz
  • Otilia Sousa
  • Marta Łockiewicz
  • Dalila Lino
  • Martyna Piechowska
  • Marina J. Fuertes
  • Magdalena Wawrzyniak-Śliwska
  • Teresa Costa-Pereira



curriculum, early childhood education, oracy, Poland, Portugal


The aim of our paper is to describe and examine the approach to oracy in core curricula in two European countries: Poland and Portugal. In the paper, we examine kindergarten and early education L1 curricula, identifying their strengths and weaknesses, similarities and differences, and discuss theoretical positions that support the guiding documents of the educational activities in the two countries.

Though Polish and Portuguese early education recommendations and obligations include teaching oracy, the importance they put on its development is quite dissimilar. Polish legislation focuses on teaching literacy. The term “oracy” is not used, and oracy itself is treated as a sub-category with specific require-ments concerning most elementary forms of expression, e. g. naming or answering questions. Portuguese legislation lists orality among four main educational components, together with reading and writing, liter-ary education, and grammar. The term “orality” corresponds to oracy, and is treated as a tool for both expression and comprehension, and a prerequisite for advanced cognitive skills.

We think that the development of oracy in early education should be considered a priority, together with the development of literacy, taking into account its importance for the children's future academic achievement and active citizenship.




How to Cite

Daszkiewicz, M., Sousa, O., Łockiewicz, M., Lino, D., Piechowska, M., Fuertes, M. J., Wawrzyniak-Śliwska, M., & Costa-Pereira, T. (2020). Comparative analysis of the approach to L1 oracy in Polish and Portuguese early education curricula. L1-Educational Studies in Language and Literature, 20(1), 1–17.